Friday, November 15, 2019
Characteristics In Autism Children Psychology Essay
Characteristics In Autism Children Psychology Essay Approximately one in every 88 children in the United States has been diagnosed with Autism, also known as Autism Spectrum Disorder, a complex neurodevelopmental disorder of unusual social and communication behaviors that begins in early life (Peterson and Barbel, 2013). This type of disorder has been more prevalent in recent years, occurring primarily in children. Even though many researchers have not yet found the exact cause of autism, they have pointed out several possible risk factors that contribute to autistic individuals. Without a specified cause of autism and universal intervention, the challenges of diagnosing and having care for the disorder causes more difficulty. However, it is important for parents to seek early intervention for children with autism. This causes many controversies and confusions from diagnosis to treatment. Yet, it is expected that new research will assist in discovering some of these mysteries aspects of autism. Characteristics in Autism Children with autism show a wide range of signs and symptoms that vary from child to child. It is difficult to phrase all the characteristics and signs into simple words. Characteristics found in autistic children have appeared in early ages, from toddlers to infants. However, they may improve overtime as the child develops. A study has been designed to assess the parents experiences regarding with their autistic child, and the majority of the parents said that the autistic child experiences unusual verbal communications and motor behavior (Guinchat et al, 2012). Additional core symptoms are unusual interests in activities or play (usually focus on little things of the toy, get upset at little things), nonverbal/ verbal communication (unable to interpret emotions, catch meaning in a word, delay or lack of communication skills), and social interactions and relationships (unable to make eye contact, make friends, feel what other people are feeling). This research was done to help docto rs to easily diagnose patients that are at risk of autism. However, this is a spectrum disorder, meaning that this affects each individual to a certain degree, ranging from mild to severe. Each child with ASD has his or her own individual pattern of unusual behavior that some parents questioned, what is wrong with their child. As a result, it is suggested that early detection of autism is up the parents and will make a huge difference on the childs life. Risk factors Many individuals questioned the cause of autism, but the question has remained open. The biggest mystery in the study of autism appears that researchers have linked possible risk factors. Autism diagnosis suggested that a combination of environmental and genetic risk factors contribute to higher chances of autism (Deth, Muratore, Benecry, Power-Charnitsky and Waly, 2008). Exposure to toxins or pollution, such as pesticides in the environment generates an increased chance of autism during pregnancy, and those toxins surrounds a genes DNA can affects the gene activity (Shelton, Hertz-Picciotto and Pessah, 2012). In addition, another study has shown that genetics influences the risk of autism; gene mutations and sex chromosomes are linked to ASD. Medical conditions with syndromes such as Fragile X syndrome, Rett syndrome, and tuberous sclerosis have shown signs of autism characteristics, but further research is still needed to prove this point (Johnson, Giarelli, Lewis, and Rice, 2013). Although much research has been conducted to build this mysterious case, researchers have yet to come up with a definite conclusion to the cause of autism. There are also controversial claims that mirror neurons are found to be delayed or dysfunctional in autism, but there is no evidence that mirror neurons in humans illustrate that correlation. Giacomo Rizzolatii, a scientist at the University of Parma, discovered mirror neurons in macaque monkeys; when the monkey observes an action from an individual, the monkey copies the same action (2004). He believes that humans behave in much the same way. The role of mirror neurons give us the ability to imitate, have empathy, and ability to understand social cues. According to an article in the Journal of Psychiatric Neuroscience and Therapeutic (2010), most children develop strong mirror activity while autistic individuals seem to have weak mirror neurons in their youth that lead to social deficits (Bastiaansen et al). However, other studies did not find mirror neuron contribute to the autistic individuals. IIan Dinstein and his colleagues doubted the mirror neuron hypothesis. His research fou nd that when the brains were scanned, there were no differences between autistic and normal individuals while the individuals performed specific tasks (Dinstein et al, 2010). Some studies show that autistic individuals mirror neurons are slower than usual while viewing the emotions or actions of others while other studies do not (Ramachandran, 2006). Due to the opposing conclusions of different studies with regard to the mirror neuron hypothesis, the link between mirror neurons and autism remains controversial. Early Intervention Evidence suggests the importance of early intervention in autistic children. Children who enter programs at younger ages will improve autism symptoms than those who enter programs at older ages. One approach to the early invention is the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM). According to the article in Journal of the American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry (2012), autistic children who received the ESDM intervention, which involves structured teaching, a relationship-based approach, showed substantial improvements in IQ, language, adaptive behavior, and autism diagnosis (Guinchat et al). Second approach to the early intervention is the Applied Behavior Analysis Programs, most notable treatment approach. This approach maximizes the encouragement of positive behaviors while discouraging negative behavior in order to improve a variety of skills (Matson et al, 2012). Another approach is the therapy-based intervention. This approach provides a specific therapy that targets specific di fficulties such as speech/language therapy, physical therapy, and occupational therapy. There are many kinds of interventions that can help to treat autism, and parents should take action as soon as possible, even if his or her child is not at risk of autism. Geraldine Dawson, Ph.D., a chief science officer of Autism Speak, suggested that even brief intervention will result in better improvements of social behavior such as imitation and small changes due to early preschool program will give some benefits to young children with autism (2012). Also, encouraging the child to play with objects and communication is important in early development. That being said, imitating others will help improve other aspects of autism. An example of how early intervention is involved is my little cousin, Conner. I did not understand the characteristics of autism before doing this research paper. Every time we had family gatherings and I tried to acknowledge him, he would run away in fear toward a nonfamily member. I stepped aside and asked his mother what his problem was. She told me he is diagnosed with autism and has some difficulties approaching other people. As I observed, he looked normal. The nonfamily member is a behavioral intervention specialist, also known as his nanny, who watches over him. He would not interact with the other little cousins, but only with his nanny. According to his mother, he was not able to be accepted into day care due to his special needs. He is the only family member that is autistic. Conclusion Overall, doing a research paper on this topic led me to determine that autism is an extremely difficult disorder to understand. This topic on autism will evolve over time and further research will be conducted with the aim of discovery of the causes and proper treatment. The biological aspect of the disorder is a mystery. Continued research on the development of the autistic child relative to a normal child will assist in diagnosing and treating. With the help of diagnosis, we can develop proper early intervention techniques to positively reduce the disorders effects. There are many research ventures that are being done concerning this disorder. The purpose of this research for future is to enhance awareness to parents about their early child that maybe at the risk of autism. Additionally, they can seek characteristics followed by early intervention that will help easily diagnosis and treat.