Sunday, June 7, 2020

Alexander III of Macedonia - Free Essay Example

Alexander III of Macedon, popularly known as alexander the great, was born in July 356 B.C. in Pella, Macedonia. He was the son of King Philip II of Macedon and Queen Olympias of Epirus. It is believed that he had less of a close relationship with his father, compared to his mothers close relationship with him, because of Philips military campaigns. Alexander III teachers included Leonidas (arithmetic, horsemanship, and archery), Lysimachus, and Aristotle (rhetoric and literature). Although there is not a lot of information about Lysimachus, readings suggest that he was a great influence on young Alexander III. Alexanders favorite tutor was the Acarnian Lysimachus, who devised a game whereby Alexander impersonated the hero Achilles. This delighted Olympias, for her family claimed the hero as an ancestor. In Alexanders youthful mind, Achilles became the epitome of the aristocratic warrior, and Alexander modeled himself after this hero of Homers Iliad. (Gale, 2018) From a young age, he had a divine descent ideology that he carried later in life. Olympias gave to this idea by claiming that Alexanders real father was the god Zeus. At age 18 Alexander led part of the Macedonian troops in the battle of Chaeronea along his father Philip II. The king and his young son Alexander overran the city of Elateia on the Boeatian border; the route to Athens and Thebes was now open. Philip marched his troops southward to confront the enemy on a small plain outside the town of Chaeronea (Wasson, 2009). The successful battle helped Philip II gain control of the Greek city-states, except for Persia. Earlier in his life, Alexanders relationship with his father was strained because of his fathers absence due to military campaigns. This relationship strained farther more after Philip II married a woman named Cleopatra/Eurydice which threaten Alexanders inheritance to the throne. Even though Philip was polygamist in order to do treaties by marriage, Olympias did not accept the marriage, and she went into voluntary exile along with Alexander. After his father was assassinated by one of his bodyguards, Alexander the Great took over the throne and dealt with every possible opposition. He quickly dealt with his enemies at home and reasserted Macedonian power within Greece. He then set out to conquer the massive Persian Empire (BBC,2014). It is said that he needed the financial supplies in order to sustain his army, so he sought war in Thebes against King Darius III, king of Persia. Initially, Alexander III wanted to negotiate peace treaty, but Persians refused. As a result, the city was crushed to the ground, soldiers were killed, and women and children were sold to slavery. This served as a message to other cities as a price to pay in case of a rebellion. Soon after, in October 335 B.C. he prepared for his army campaign to Asia. He took west Asia Minor, Sardis, Miletus, Halicarnassus, Cilicia, Taurus, and Syria. It was in Gordius that he was told he was destined to greater things for he had cut the Gordian knot, which prophesized that he was going to be the future king of Asia. Alexander III battled king Darius III in Issus. He defeated King Darius army and captured his family. Even though King Darius promised a peace treaty and part of territories, Alexander III refused and proclaimed himself the king of Asia. Now, it was time for him to secure Egypt, Arbela, Babylonia, and Persia. The royal palace of Susa and its treasuries fell to Alexander in the summer of 331, and he set out for Persepolis, the capital of the Persian Empire. To prevent a royal uprising and to exact punishment for the Persian destruction of Athens in 480, Alexander burned Persepolis, a rash but symbolic act. (Gale,2018) In July 330, king Darius III was assassinate d by his own satraps, making Alexander the III king of Persia. He accustomed to the culture there. After that, He took over Iran and India where he married a woman named Rhoxana to bind his Eastern empire more closely to him in a political alliance. (gale,2018) Growing up he had a hard relationship with his father because of all the things his father did in order to grow his empire. Alexander the Great was doing the same things his father did. He was absent doing military campaigns, and he would marry multiple women in order to make alliances and grow his empire. Greatly concerned with the rule of his empire and the need for soldiers, officers, and administrators Alexander, although married to Rhoxana, married Stateira, a daughter of Darius, to legitimize his sovereignty. (Gale, 2018) At the end of his ruling however, Macedonian followers were against his adoption of Eastern cultures such as the Persian ideals. when he decided to dismiss his aged and wounded Macedonian soldiers, the angry soldiers condemned his Persian troops and his Persian man ners. Alexander arrested 13 of their leaders and executed them. Such a divide continued until Alexander the Greats dead in 323 at age 32. Alexander III of Macedonia was a great strategist and his empire was an inspiration to future leaders such as Napoleon Bonaparte, Caesar, and Augustus. His legacy is seen today through the blend of Greek culture in the world through art, architecture, and literature. Different readings suggest that even though he was taking over the world and sometimes being ruthless towards opposition, he was always open to the different cultures and traditions of each city. In every country Alexander had respected the local customs, religions, and peoples. In Jerusalem he had retained the priestly rule of the Temple, and in Egypt he sacrificed to the local gods. At Memphis the Egyptian priesthood recognized him as pharaoh, offered him the royal sacrifices, and invested him as king on the throne of Ptah. They hailed Alexander as a god (gale,2018) Nevertheless, he also endorsed Greek values. This type of r? ©gime worked because people would keep their traditions and religious beliefs making him see n as a liberator rather than an oppressive ruler.

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Can Science Prove Anything

What does it mean to prove a scientific theory? Whats the role of mathematics in science? How do you define the scientific method? Take a look at the fundamental way people look at science, what proof means, and whether a hypothesis can be proven or unprovable. The Conversation Begins The story starts with  an e-mail which seemed to criticize my support of the big bang theory which is, after all, unprovable. The author of the e-mail indicated that he thought this was tied into the fact that in my Introduction to the Scientific Method article, I have the following line: Analyze the data - use proper mathematical analysis to see if the results of the experiment support or refute the hypothesis. He implied that placing an emphasis on mathematical analysis was misleading. He claimed that mathematics was tacked on later, by theoreticians believed that science could be better explained using equations and arbitrarily assigned constants. According to the writer, mathematics can be manipulated to get the results desired, based on the scientists preconceptions, such as what Einstein did with the cosmological constant. There are a lot of great points in this explanation, and several which I feel are far wide of the mark. Lets consider them point by point over the next few days. Why all Scientific Theories Are Unprovable The big bang theory is absolutely unprovable. In fact, all scientific theories are unprovable, but the big bang does suffer from this a bit more than most. When I say that all scientific theories are unprovable, Im referencing the ideas of famed philosopher of science Karl Popper, who is well known for discussing the idea that a scientific idea must be falsifiable. In other words, there has to be some way (in principle, if not in actual practice) that you could have an outcome which contradicts a scientific idea. Any idea which can be constantly shifted around so that any sort of evidence would fit it is, by Poppers definition, not a scientific idea. (This is why the concept of God, for example, is not scientific. Those who believe in God use pretty much everything to support their claim and cannot come up with evidence -- at least short of dying and finding that nothings happened, which unfortunately yields little in the way of empirical data in this world -- which could, even in theory, refute their claim.) One consequence of Poppers work with falsifiability is the understanding that you never really prove a theory. What scientists do is instead come up with implications of the theory, make hypotheses based on those implications, and then try to prove that specific hypothesis true or false through either experiment or careful observation. If the experiment or observation matches the prediction of the hypothesis, the scientist has gained support for the hypothesis (and therefore the underlying theory), but has not proven it. Its always possible that theres another explanation for the result. However, if the prediction is proven false, then the theory might have serious flaws. Not necessarily, of course, because there are three potential stages that could contain the flaw: the experimental set-upthe reasoning that led to the hypothesis the underlying theory itself Evidence which contradicts the prediction may just be a result of an error in running the experiment, or it could mean that the theory is sound, but the way the scientist (or even scientists in general) interpreted it has some flaws. And, of course, its possible that the underlying theory is just flat out wrong. So let me state categorically that the big bang theory is completely unprovable ... but it is consistent, by and large, with everything else we know about the universe. There are still many mysteries, but very few scientists believe that they will be answered without some variation of the big bang in the distant past. Edited by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

mood, substance, and personality disorders Essay - 1729 Words

Mood, Substance, and Personality Disorders nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Do you know a person that has sudden mood swings? Do you wonder why they act like they do? Their actions could be a result of a type of mood disorder. Mood disorders are part of the Axis One disorders that are found in the DSM IV. Axis One is all categories of disorders except for personality disorders. People who have mood disorders are diagnosed to have a pattern of severe depressive and manic episodes. One major mood disorder that will be discussed is bipolar disorder. People who are bipolar tend to have episodes of both mania and depression, sometime by themselves or sometimes mixed. Some of the symptoms are a very active social life, rapid speech, racing†¦show more content†¦The movie showed just how difficult it is to live with the disorder and how drastic manic and depressive episodes can be. However, in the movie Dr Brown falls in love with the charming and talented Mr. Jones. She then stopped treating him because it was not professional; she later resigned from her job completely. This is the only part of the movie that was not accurate because if that relationship occurred in every day life, Dr. Brown would have been disciplined farther. She probably would have lost her license. Overall, I thought the movie was excellent and it was cast perfectly. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Substance-related disorders include several diagnoses. Substances are used to change a person’s mood and consciousness which usually leads to addiction. The main concerns of this disorder are drinking problems, nicotine problems, marijuana problems, stimulants problems, and hallucinogen problems. Alcohol is the most commonly used drug in the United States: 18% of men and 8% of women have alcohol related disorders. There are three different kinds of disorders caused by alcohol: alcohol dependence, alcohol abuse, and alcohol induced disorders. Alcohol dependence occurs when a person loses control of their alcohol consumption. It indicates that there is addiction, high tolerance, and there will be symptoms of withdrawal. People with this disorder feel better when they are wasted than when they are sober. Symptoms of withdrawal includeShow MoreRelatedPsychological And Emotional Hazards Of Nurses1612 Words   |  7 Pagesexperiencing psychological disorders; however, they are biologically human and prone to the vast spectrum of mental defects. Health care providers need to recognize that pilots are human and at risk of mental instability. Pilots are at risk of psychological disorders and triggers such as adjustment disorder, anxiety disorder, attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactive disorder, mood disorder, organic mental disorders, personality disorder, psychotic disorder, and substance abuse. If a pilotRead MoreBorderline Personality Disorder ( Borderline )1361 Words   |  6 Pages Borderline Personality Disorder is named borderline personality disorder because at one point in history they considered this disorder to be on the â€Å"borderline† between neurosis and psychosis. Borderline personality disorder is a severe mental disorder that impacts an individual’s behavior, relationships, and mood. The disorder usually begins during adolescence or young adulthood. People with BPD have a tendency of rapid change in attitude or feelings toward others because they cannot regulateRead MoreBorderline Personality Disorder ( Bpd )932 Words   |  4 PagesBorderline personality disorder (BPD) is an emotional disorder that causes emotional instability, leading to stress and other problems. With borderline personality disorder your image of yourself is distorted, making you feel worthless and fundamentally flawed. Your anger, impulsivity and frequent mood swings may push others away, even though you desire loving relationships. It is an often misunderstood , serious mental illness characterized by pervasive instability in moods, interpersonal relationshipsRead MoreBorderline Personality Disorder ( Adhd ) Essay1275 Words   |  6 PagesBorderline Personality Disorder History of disorder Prior to 1938, there were only psychotic and neurotic disorders. The clients were either psychotic or neurotic; however, there were some cases when the clients did not meet neither of the disorders or had a mixture of both. This is what led Adolf Stern to coin the term â€Å"borderline† in 1938 to describe clients who disorders did not fit into psychotic or neurotic disorders. They were considered to be somewhere in between. By the 1970’s Otto KernbergRead MoreUnit 4222 6191201 Words   |  5 Pagesof mental ill health 1 Mood disorders Mood disorder covers all types of depression . 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Avoidant Personality Disorder (Cluster C) -A pervasive pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy and hypersensitivityRead MoreRelationship Between Mental Health And Addiction1470 Words   |  6 PagesIf you or someone you love is seeking treatment for a substance abuse related disorder in addition to a psychiatric disorder, you will come across two terms in your research: co-occurring disorders and dual diagnosis. Right off you may be more concerned about simply getting help for your addiction. Maybe it has caused you to lose your job and your family is in tatters. It s important to note that when substance abuse and mental illness co-occur specialized treatment is needed. First, however, youRead MoreParanoid Personality Disorder and Substance Use Disorder: Co-Occurring1709 Words   |  7 PagesParanoid Personality Disorder and Substance Use Disorder: Co-occurring Personality disorders affect 10-15% of the adult US population. A personality disorder is a very rigid pattern of inner experience and outward behavior. According to SAMHSA over 8.9 million persons have co-occurring disorders; that is that they have both mental and substance use disorders. Only 7.4% receive treatment and 55.8% receive no treatment at all. The National Survey on Drug use and Health states that there were 45Read MoreThe Major Categories Of Disorder1063 Words   |  5 Pagescategories of disorder include the following: †¢ Anxiety Disorders †¢ Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorders †¢ Dissociative Disorders †¢ Feeding and Eating Disorders †¢ Mood Disorders †¢ Neurocognitive Disorders †¢ Neurodevelopmental Disorders †¢ Personality Disorders †¢ Sleep-Wake Disorders †¢ Somatic Symptoms and Related Disorders †¢ Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders †¢ Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders Mood Disorders Mood disorders consist of a widespread range of mood issues, suchRead MoreBorderline Personality Disorder ( Bpd )1618 Words   |  7 PagesBorderline Personality Disorder (BPD) Borderline Personality Disorder Borderline personality disorder is defined in the DSM IV, a manual used by psychiatrists to diagnose all mental disorders, as an AXIS II disorder which has symptoms of impulsively and emotional dysregulation (Livesley 146). A person with BPD have feelings of abandonment and emptiness, and have frantic efforts to avoid abandonment, going to extremes to keep someone from leaving (Burger 300). He or she is emotionally unstable

Hitler Facts Essay free essay sample

Unemployment in Germany rose to 6 million. The government did not know what to do. In July 1930 Chancellor Bruning cut government expenditure, wages and unemployment pay the worst thing to do during a depression. He could not get the Reichstag to agree to his actions, so President Hindenburg used Article 48 to pass the measures by decree. * The Nazis gain support Anger and bitterness helped the Nazis to gain more support. Many workers turned to communism, but this frightened wealthy businessmen, so they financed Hitlers campaigns. Many middle-class people, alarmed by the obvious failure of democracy, decided that the country needed a strong government. Nationalists and racists blamed the Treaty of Versailles and reparations. * By July 1932, the Nazis held 230 seats In 1928, the Nazis had only 12 seats in the Reichstag; by July 1932 they had 230 seats and were the largest party. The government was in chaos. President Hindenburg dismissed Bruning in 1932. His replacement Papen lasted six months, and the next chancellor Schleicher only lasted two months. We will write a custom essay sample on Hitler Facts Essay or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Hindenburg had to use Article 48 to pass almost every law. * Hitler handed power on a plate In January 1933, Hindenburg and Papen came up with a plan to get the Nazis on their side by offering to make Hitler vice chancellor. He refused and demanded to be made chancellor. They agreed, thinking they could control him. In January 1933, Hitler became chancellor, and immediately set about making himself absolute ruler of Germany using Article 48. Reasons why Hitler rose to power 1. Hitler was a great speaker, with the power to make people support him. 2. The moderate political parties would not work together, although together they had more support than the Nazis. 3. The depression of 1929 created poverty and unemployment, which made people angry with the Weimar government. People lost confidence in the democratic system and turned towards the extremist political parties such as the Communists and Nazis during the depression. 4. The Nazi storm troopers attacked Hitlers opponents. . Goebbels propaganda campaign was very effective and it won support for the Nazis. The Nazis targeted specific groups of society with different slogans and policies to win their support. 6. Hitler was given power in a seedy political deal by Hindenburg and Papen who foolishly thought they could control him. 7. German people were still angry about the Treaty of Versailles and supported Hitler because he promised to overturn it. 8. Industrialists gave Hitler money and support.

Monday, April 20, 2020

Childhood Obesity Causes/Solutions

Thesis Statement Childhood obesity is one of the biggest developing health problems associated with the things such as types of foods that children consume, genetic factors, addiction to highly pleasurable foods, and diminished physical activities.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Childhood Obesity: Causes/Solutions specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, failure of the government to take precautionary measures such as controlling the foods served to children, introduction of BMI checking to schoolchildren, and planning of anti-obesity campaigns amongst others will automatically threaten the health of children and that of the population of the nation at large. Introduction Obesity is the development of more weight than the body of an individual is supposed to carry. Ideally, the body of a person should carry weight within a certain range according to the height of the given individual. Much weight for a specific height is deemed overweight and consequently underweight for a much less weight for a specific height. Therefore, childhood obesity is the development of more weight, which is mostly fats, more than the height can accommodate. It is usually 20% more body fat weight in a child. Childhood obesity is a serious health problem to society due to the frequency of obesity cases that are being reported of late. The greatest concern brought about by childhood obesity is that it has been identified as a precursor to certain adulthood ailments if not controlled. Thus, controlling it is a way of eliminating some adulthood ailments. As Riley reveals, childhood obesity leads to such ailments as; â€Å"hypertension, respiratory ailments, orthopedic problems, depression, type two diabetes, and high cholesterol among others† (395). Statistics about the problem According to Green and Riley, childhood obesity has increased threefold since the year 1981. Sixteen per cent percentage of the population of children between the ages of 6 and 19 years suffer from obesity (917). In the United States, 23% of children coming from poor families are likely to suffer from obesity compared to 14% of those who come from families that are doing well socially and economically (Riley 395). Obesity has led to a rise in the cost of healthcare for the national government with obesity cases consuming up to 71million dollars in terms of treatment between the years 2008-2009.Advertising Looking for research paper on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to statistics, there has been a 50% increase in obese cases among children of 7-12 years during the years 1991-1998. Eyler finds that the United States of America government has had to come up with policies and legislation that would reverse the trend by the year 2015 (2294). This effort is an indicator to the seriousness of the problem and the concern that the government has towards it. What causes childhood obesity? Causes of Childhood Obesity The Foods in the Market One of the biggest causes of childhood obesity is the type of food a child eats. Following the increase in populations and the decrease in the land for agricultural production, scientists have come up with ways of producing high yields of crops on remarkably small pieces of land for feeding the populations. Most of these foods are produced using biotechnology and bioengineering, which lead to high crop yields. Most crops produced using the methods have been cited as sources of obesity upon producing food from them. High yield crop production involves altering of the genetic makeup of the crops. When consumed by children and or other people, the effects are directly transferred to them. Animals that used as food to human beings are usually fed on foods with high hormones to spur quick growth of the animals. When children feed on products from these animals, the hormones a re directly transferred to them thus triggering a faster development of their cells and body tissues hence leading to obesity. Genetic Factors Genetic factors can also be attributed to be a cause of childhood obesity that happens when a child grows bigger than the actual size, and then it is cited as a family trend. Some people are naturally grown. This condition sometimes inherited and passes from one generation to the other. The study further revealed that there is a 75% chance of children being obese if their parents were obese and a 75% chance of children being thin or slim if their parents were thin. This fact is a sure indicator that obesity is a genetic factor that is passed on from parents to their children. The situation can be controlled if the children engage in activities that can enable them burn the extra calories and fats. Addiction to highly pleasurable foods According to Pretlow, addiction to highly pleasurable foods can be one of the biggest causes of obesity in ch ildren between the age of 5years to 19years (297). Most of these highly pleasurable foods are extraordinarily high in calories thus leading to extremely fast weight gain in children and young adults. The advent of fast food outlets has exacerbated the problem because most of the foods sold in fast food outlets are highly pleasurable besides containing excess calories. Addiction to these kinds of foods can be equated to some extent to the addiction found in substances like drugs. Addiction to highly pleasurable foods thus leads the child eating more and more of the food. Because they are not in a position to burn the loads of calories gained by their bodies, they tend to begin piling more and more fats in their bodies.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Childhood Obesity: Causes/Solutions specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Diminished physical activities Childhood obesity can be attributed to diminished physic al activities among children. Most children nowadays do not engage in physical activities as compared to the past. In the past, most parents would engage their children in physical activities like doing household chores while going out to play at the same time as a way of engaging in fun. That trend has changed dramatically in the recent past with most children engaging in activities that are not energy sapping. The trend has changed with the introduction of computer games in society. Most children have ended up becoming couch potatoes because they spend almost all of their playing time playing computer games, which are addictive in nature. The increase in television programs has also led to children getting addicted to watching television. Reilly finds that television companies have come up with tailor-made programs for children thus leading to television addiction (395). Steps the government should take to eliminate the problem Controlling the food served in schools The government should come up with a policy guideline on what types of food can be served in school kitchens. Nutritionists should recommend the foods because they have the right calorie contents for children at specific ages. This campaign will see the government prepare a school feeding diet program that is based on healthy eating habits, which are aimed at reducing obesity and hence eliminating it in the end. An observation by Wojcicki and Heyman contends that an awareness program starting from schools is a sure way of controlling obesity (1630). Introduction of BMI check in schools The government should introduce a regular body mass index check to all children in schools as a way of checking and regulating the problem. A regular body mass index check will make the children aware of their weight status and the need to keep healthy bodies and lifestyles. Such checks can also be used for recommending specific physical activity programs to the children as a way of enabling them burn the excess fa ts that have accumulated in their bodies. Children growing up with the awareness of the right body mass index will be able to control overweight problems when they occur in the future thus ensuring a healthy nation. Develop a nationwide anti obesity campaign The government should develop a nationwide campaign that will see the awareness levels of the population increased to such an extent that everyone in society is aware of the problem. Huang observes that a nationwide campaign to eliminate obesity will enable parents bring up their children with awareness of the obesity problem (148).Advertising Looking for research paper on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Most parents are usually unaware of the obesity problem in their children thus ending up not taking the right steps to stop it. The society today is made up of parents who spend a lot of their time chasing their careers than taking care of their children and hence the need to remind them of their responsibility. Conclusion Childhood obesity is a complex problem that cannot be easily wished away due to the many different elements that cause to it. It needs a multipronged approach that will control it. The problem with obesity is that it cannot be eliminated. Thus, there is a need for the government to put measures as discussed above to minimize it as much as possible. Works Cited Eyler, Army et al. â€Å"Patterns and predictions of state childhood obesity legislation in United States: 2006-2009.† American Journal of Public health 102.12 (2012): 2294- 2302. Print. Green, Gregory, and Riley Clarence. â€Å"Physical activity and childhood obesity: Strategies and solutions for sc hools and parents.† Education 132.4 (2012): 915-920. Print. Huang, Terry. â€Å"Prevention and treatment: Solutions beyond the individual.† Journal of Law, Medicine Ethics 35 (2007): 148-149. Print. Pretlow, Robert. Addiction to highly pleasurable food as a cause of the childhood  obesity epidemic: A qualitative internet study. Washington D.C: Routledge, 2008. Print. Riley, John. â€Å"Childhood obesity: An overview.† Children Society 21.5 (2007): 390-396. Print. Wojcicki, Janet, and Melvin Heyman. â€Å"Reducing childhood obesity by eliminating 100% fruit juice.† American Journal of Public Health 102.9 (2012): 1630-1633. Print. Note Card I Summary Note Card: Following the rising impacts that obesity has had on the US citizens, leave alone the children, there has been a call to the government to pass bills that emphasize the need to reduce the danger caused by this fatal disease. Patterns and Predictors of Enactment of State Childhood Obesity Legislati on in the United States: 2006-2009 points out the efforts that the US is making to curb the rising trend by 2015. The article reveals how the US has made it a priority to pass bills that address needs of the obese people as a way of ensuring that they are not left to die of the disease when measures can actually be implemented to rescue them and the US at large. Eyler, Army et al. â€Å"Patterns and predictions of state childhood obesity legislation in United States: 2006-2009.† American Journal of Public health 102.12 (2012): 2294- 2302. Print. Quotation Note Card: Eyler et al state, â€Å"†¦the number of bills introduced from 2006 to 2009 with obesity prevention content is encouraging, as is the enactment rate of these bills.† Eyler, Army et al. â€Å"Patterns and predictions of state childhood obesity legislation in United States: 2006-2009.† American Journal of Public health 102.12 (2012): 2298. Print. Paraphrase Note Card: According to Eyler et al, the period 2006-2008 has been characterized by tremendous efforts by the US government to publish many bills that specifically touch on the issue of obesity. The findings indicate that the earlier on observed obesity trend in the US will be changing with time with fewer reports of obesity cases. Eyler, Army et al. â€Å"Patterns and predictions of state childhood obesity legislation in United States: 2006-2009.† American Journal of Public health 102.12 (2012): 2298. Print. Note Card II Summary Note Card: Despite the many efforts put in place to fight obesity, it is alarming to find out how obesity prevalence is rising in the UK and the US specifically among children and adolescents. This revelation indicates that the current strategies used to fight the disease do not have a well-crafted message to persuade the children and adolescents to change their eating habits and or engage in strenuous activities to help rid themselves of the many useless calories whose accumulation has le d to their obese nature. Hence, there is room for more studies on the best strategies to use to reach the affected children and adolescent if at all eliminating obesity is the goal of both the UK and the US. Riley, John. â€Å"Childhood obesity: An overview.† Children Society 21.5 (2007): 390-396. Print. Quotation Note Card: â€Å"Successful prevention of obesity in future will require good examples or models of interventions which have achieved objectively measured and sustained behavior change† Riley, John. â€Å"Childhood obesity: An overview.† Children Society 21.5 (2007): 395. Print. Paraphrase Note Card: Due to the observed failure of the current strategies to help the obese children and adolescents, there has been a call for future research to incorporate interventions that will have the capacity to alter the observed high rates of obesity among the US and the UK children and adolescents. Riley, John. â€Å"Childhood obesity: An overview.† Childr en Society 21.5 (2007): 395. Print. This research paper on Childhood Obesity: Causes/Solutions was written and submitted by user Destinee Sweeney to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Sunday, March 15, 2020

The History of Early and Modern Screws and Screwdrivers

The History of Early and Modern Screws and Screwdrivers A screw is any shaft with a corkscrew-shaped groove formed on its surface. Screws are used to fasten two objects together. A screwdriver is a tool for driving (turning) screws; screwdrivers have a tip that fits into the head of a screw. Early Screws Around the first century CE, screw shaped tools became common, however, historians do not know who invented the first. Early screws were made from wood and were used in wine presses, olive oil presses, and for pressing clothes. Metal screws and nuts used to fasten two objects together first appeared in the fifteenth century. Mass Production of Screws In 1770, English instrument maker, Jesse Ramsden (1735–1800) invented the first satisfactory screw-cutting lathe. Ramsden inspired other inventors. In 1797, Englishmen, Henry Maudslay (1771–1831) invented a large screw-cutting lathe that made it possible to mass-produce accurately sized screws. In 1798, American David Wilkinson also invented machinery for the mass production of threaded metal screws. Robertson Screw In 1908, square-drive screws were invented by Canadian P. L. Robertson. Twenty-eight years before Henry Phillips patented his Phillips head screws, which are also square-drive screws. The Robertson screw is considered the first recess-drive type fastener practical for production usage. The design became a North American standard, as published in the sixth edition of Industrial Fasteners Institute Metric and Inch Standards. A square-drive head on a screw can be better than a slot head because the screwdriver will not slip out of the screws head during installation. The Model T car made by the Ford Motor Company (one of Robertsons first customers) used over seven hundred Robertson screws. Phillips Head Screw In the early 1930s, the Phillips head screw was invented by Henry Phillips. Automobile manufacturers now used car assembly lines. They needed screws that could take greater torque and could provide tighter fastenings. The Phillips head screw was compatible with the automated screwdrivers used in an assembly line. Allen Key A hexagonal or hex screw head has a hexagonal hole turned by an Allen key. An Allen key is a hexagonally shaped wrench. Screwdriver In 1744, the flat-bladed bit for the carpenters brace was invented, the precursor to the first simple screwdriver. Handheld screwdrivers first appeared after 1800. Types of Screws Cap screw has a convex head, usually hexagonal, designed to be driven by a spanner or wrench.The wood  screw has a tapered shaft allowing it to penetrate the undrilled  wood.Machine screw has a cylindrical shaft and fits into a nut or a tapped hole, a small bolt.The self-tapping  screw has a cylindrical shaft and a sharp thread that cuts its own hole, often used in sheet metal or plastic.Drywall screw is a specialized self-tapping screw with a cylindrical shaft that has proved to have uses far beyond its original application.The set screw has no head and is designed to be inserted flush with or below the surface of the workpiece.The double-ended  screw is a wood-screw with two pointed ends and no head. It is used for making hidden joints between two pieces of wood. Shapes of Screw Head Pan head: disc with a chamfered outer edgeCheesehead: disc with a cylindrical  outer edgeCountersunk: conical, with flat outer face and tapering inner face allowing it to sink into the material, very common for wood screwsButton or dome head: flat inner face and hemispherical outer faceMirror screw head: countersunk head with a tapped hole to receive a separate screw-in chrome-plated cover; used for attaching mirrors Types of Screw Drive A variety of tools  exists  to drive screws into the material to be fixed. The hand tools used to drive slot-headed and cross-headed screws  are  called screwdrivers. A power tool that does the same job is a power screwdriver. The hand-tool for driving cap screws and other types is called a spanner (U.K. usage) or wrench (U.S. usage). Slot head is driven by a flat-bladed screwdriver.Cross-head or Phillips screw has an X-shaped slot and is driven by a cross-head screwdriver, designed originally in the 1930s for use with mechanical screwing machines, intentionally made so the driver will ride out, or cam out, under strain to prevent over-tightening.Pozidriv is patented, similar to cross-head but with better resistance to slipping, or cam-out.Hexagonal or hex screw head has a hexagonal hole and is driven by a hexagonal wrench, sometimes called an Allen  key or a power tool with a hexagonal bit.Robertson drive head has a square hole and is driven by a special power-tool bit or screwdriver (this is a low-cost version of the hex head for domestic use).Torx head has a splined socket and receives a driver with a splined shaft.Tamper-proof  Torxs drive socket has a projection to prevent a standard  Torx  driver being inserted.Tri-Wing screws were used by Nintendo on its  Gameboys. This discouraged even minor home repairs to the units. Nuts Nuts are square, round, or hexagonal metal blocks with a screw thread on the inside. Nuts help fasten objects together and are used with screws or bolts.

Friday, February 28, 2020

Week 5 discussion and participation questions Essay

Week 5 discussion and participation questions - Essay Example An independent variable for this problem could be income. Hypothesis testing is a procedure that tests the validity of a statement in regards to a population parameter. A hypothesis is a statement about a population parameter. The five-step procedure for testing a hypothesis is: One of the reasons why hypothesis testing has been used in the business world for decades is due to its utility. The procedure can be used in a wide variety of scenarios or problem in order to test a potential hypothesis. One of the limitations of hypothesis testing is that there is a margin for error in the analysis. The ANOVA test compares the sample means through their variances. The test is applied by calculating two estimates of the variance population distributions: the variance between samples and the variance within samples. The application of regression analysis which uses both dependent and independent variables can be used in the business world to calculate a lot of different business problems and scenarios. For example a company can forecast the sales of the business for future periods utilizing the past historical sales data. A marketer could create an equation that uses dependent and independent variables to determine the preference in customer taste. In your example you mentioned the probabilities associated with card games. I am pretty sure that good Poker players are have an excellent understanding of probabilities and statistics. When I go to the casino I like playing blackjack. I know that when the dealer deals a lot of low cards and my turn is up the chances of the dealer giving me a high card increases. An equation that can be used to put the concept of dependent and independent variables into good use is the y = ax + b. In this equation x is the independent variable and y is the dependent variable. This equation can be used in the business world to solve a lot of different problems or scenarios. For example a research